The maintenance of fire prevention equipment such as ducting and dampers often gets neglected, but this can have serious consequences. Dermott Quinn, Managing Director, Ductbusters, highlights some of the issues
Regular ‘drop’ testing of fire dampers is essential to ensure that, should a fire occur, they will do their job
Ventilation duct systems may be out of sight but should never be out of mind when it comes to fire prevention. Ducting provides the perfect conduit for fires to spread rapidly through buildings – and into neighbouring buildings. The heat build-up inside ducts can cause combustible materials nearby, such as roof joists, to ignite; dust, debris and drafts within ductwork will also exacerbate the spread of fire, leading to significantly higher insurance claims and presenting fire fighters with a more difficult task than it need be.
All mechanical ventilation systems should have fire dampers installed and in the UK, Building Regulation 38, and for healthcare facilities, the Department of Health’s Health Technical Memorandum [HTM] 03-01 Part A, specify requirements for fitting of fire dampers. Dampers are designed to drop down in the event of a fire, effectively containing it by creating a physical barrier in the duct.
All fire dampers should be tested by a competent person at regular intervals not exceeding two years, and to be repaired or replaced immediately if found to be faulty
But regular ‘drop’ testing of fire dampers is essential to ensure that, should a fire occur, they will do their job. Fire Damper Regulation BS9999 states that ‘all fire dampers should be tested by a competent person at regular intervals not exceeding two years, and to be repaired or replaced immediately if found to be faulty.
‘Spring-operated fire dampers should be tested annually and fire dampers situated in dust-laden and similar atmospheres should be tested much more frequently, at periods suited to the degree of pollution’.
In addition, periodic maintenance of any smoke detector system used to operate fire dampers is required to determine whether detection occurs at the appropriate design smoke density. Any faulty smoke detector systems should be either repaired or replaced immediately. In the case of healthcare establishments HTM 03-01 Part B stipulates annual maintenance of all ventilation plant.
You would think that regular damper drop testing would be a given as part of the ongoing fire prevention procedure, but it is shocking how many badly maintained and faulty fire dampers are found when calling at establishments for the first time. It is not unheard of to find fire dampers with collapsed blades, corroded or jammed springs, dampers jammed open with wood, tied up with wire, even dampers incorrectly installed upside down.
A jammed fire damper will enable fire to spread rapidly and any build up of dust will add to the combustible nature of the fire
A recent UK television programme on Channel 4 highlighted the problem, citing tests in hospitals of 418 fire dampers during 2010 – only 218 passed. The Fire Safety Order requires that ‘a person who has some level of control in the premises must take reasonable steps to reduce the risk from fire’. If a fire occurs and the responsible person cannot demonstrate that they been executing their duty correctly, they can be liable for hefty fines – or in the case of fatality, possible criminal prosecution. In addition, the local fire officer has authority to close any premises if they suspect the correct procedures have not been followed.
Some insurers are including duct cleaning and maintenance directions as part of their policy requirements and failure to comply with these requirements could void buildings insurance
UK insurers are also becoming increasingly concerned with fire prevention. Some insurers are including duct cleaning and maintenance directions as part of their policy requirements and failure to comply with these requirements could void buildings insurance. For the peace of mind of property owners and managers, fire damper testing should be carried out by a qualified specialist that can provide comprehensive reports, detailing the performance of each fire damper and recommending any necessary remedial work.